英语阅读技巧 阅读理解 Reading Skills 细节理解和判断 推测词语意义 推断深层含义 理解主旨大意 理解作者意图观点态度 1.如何捕捉大意？命题思路，题目中会有the main point/main idea/ best title 等等。 读首句/段抓大意 Eg. Today Newtown is a very clean place. But many years ago, there were millions of rats in Newtown. They attacked the cats and dogs. Sometimes a lot of them knocked down a man or woman walking home at night. The rats were very big in size and they hurt many people…. Question: Which of the following is the best title for this passage? A. How to Kill Rats B. Newtown---City of Rats C. How Newtown People Became Rich D. How Newtown Became a Very Clean City. (2) 读尾句/段抓大意 Eg. On the night of the party Merlin rolled into the room playing his violin. Everyone was astonished to see him. There was just one problem. Merlin had no way to stop his roller-skater. He rolled on and on. Suddenly he ran into a huge mirror that was hanging on the wall. Down fell the mirror, breaking to pieces. Nobody forgot Merlin’s grand entrance for a long time. Question: What is the main point the writer is trying to make in this paragraph? A. The roller skates needed further improvement B. The party guests took Merlin for a fool. C. Merlin succeeded beyond expectation. D. Merlin got himself into trouble. (3) 从段落中抓大意 Eg. Now satellites are helping to forecast the weather. They are in space, and they can reach any part of the world… Today, nearly five hundred weather stations in sixty countries can receive satellite pictures…So the weather satellites are of a great help to the scientists at the station. In the past they could forecast the weather for about 24 or 48 hours earlier. Now they can make good forecasts for 3 or 5 days…. Question：The main idea of this passage is that satellites are now used in___________________. A. taking pictures of the atmosphere B. many ways C. receiving pictures of the atmosphere D. weather forecasting 2. 如何搜索文章细节 (1) 直接对号入座 Eg. At the same time after the age of ten, at eleven or twelve, boys’ and girls’ bodies start changing. This time of change is called puberty… Question: According to the text the changes in puberty start at the age of ___________. A. 8 or 9 B. 11 or 12 C. 15 or 16 D. 17 or 18 (2) 同义/反义词转换 Eg. From 1262 to 1944 Iceland was ruled first by Norway and then by Denmark. Question: How many years did Norway and Denmark ruled Iceland? A. 700 B. 682 C. 388 D. 1070 Eg. Kuming has a population of more than 5,000,000. Question: What’s the population of Kuming? A. Over five million B. Over five thousand C. Over five billion D. Over five hundred (3) 短语从句的转换 Canada Geese are large blue and white birds. When autumn arrives, they have to fly south where the weather is warmer. Question: Canada Geese have to fly south ___________. A. in spring B. before autumn C. in winter D. after summer (4) 概括归纳 Eg. Students sit in the classroom listening to the teacher. This is a way of learning. Is this the only way for students to learn something? Of course not. Question: Listening to the teacher is ________ for students to learn something. A. not a way B. the best way C. the only way D. not the only way 3. 猜测词义的技巧 (1) 根据构词法猜测词义 Eg1. I had walked two kilometers before I found a phone-box and eventually I was able to get a garage to send someone to give some help. Question: The world “eventually” means __________. A. right away B. at last C. with difficulty D. unhappily Eg2: Most telephone hot lines are completely anonymous---callers don’t have to say their names or telephone numbers. Question: The word “ anonymous” probably means ____________. A. with a name B. without a name C. free of charge D. interesting (2) 根据同义词，反义词猜测词义 One of the things I always believe is that no matter how bad something is, you can take something positive out of it. Question: The work “ positive” in the passage probably means _______________. A. terrible B. bad C. good D. real (3) 根据定义或解释猜测词义 Every December in London, the National Cage and Aviary Bird Show tires to find the best “ talking” bird in the world. One bird named Prudle stood out among the “ talking birds”. She won this prize for 12 years form 1965 to 1976. Question: What does the word “stand out” mean in this passage? A．站起来 B. 飞起来 C. 脱颖而出 D.取出来 （4）根据上下文逻辑关系猜测词义 Eg. Man can only drink or use the other 3% of the fresh water which comes from rivers, lakes an underground. On the other hand, because the number of people in the world is becoming larger and larger, more and more fresh water is needed. So water shortage becomes a big problem. Question: The word “shortage” in this passage means__________________. A. being enough B. being short of C. being short for D. being less (5) 根据生活经验猜测词义 For example, two cups of coffee will make you breathe faster and augment body heat. All this makes your heart beat faster, and doctors warn that this may be a little dangerous. Question: The world “ augment” means________________. A. increase B. drink C. stop D. make less 4. 推断隐含含义 (1) 推断数据 Eg: “ How much is the tomato soup” Paul asked. ‘Six dollars, “ the waiter said. “ It’s very good.” “ How much is the duck with orange?” Paul asked next. “ Fifteen dollars,” the waiter said. “ How much is the chocolate ice cream?” “ Six dollars” the waiter said. Paul added it up quickly. Six plus fifteen plus six is twenty-seven. He thought he could have the duck and the soup, or the duck and the ice cream.” I’ll have the duck and the chocolate ice cream, please.” He said to the waiter. Question: How much did Paul’s meal cost? A. $21 B. $24 C. $25 D. 527 （2）推断隐含句义 Eg. We are all busy talking about and using the Internet, but how many of us know the history of the Internet? The Internet has now become one of the most important parts of people’s life. Question: What can we infer from the last sentence? A. People will die without the Internet B. All people should set up their own network C. People live easily without Internet D. People will more and more depend on the Internet (3) 推断作者观点意图 Eg. TV shows are like books or films. A child can learn bad things from some of them and good things form others. Some shows help children to understand the news from Washington and other parts of the world. Some programmes show people and places from other countries or other times in history. With TV child does not have to go to the zoo to see animals or to sea to see a ship. Boys and girls can see a play, a concert or a basketball game at home. Some programmes even teach children how to cook or how to use tools. Question: The writer’s opinion is that ___________________. A. boys and girls should spend some time both on TV and other things. B. children shouldn’t watch TV shows C. parents mustn’t buy TV sets. D. children should stop watching TV.
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